According to radiometric dating estimation and other evidence, Earth formed over 4.5 billion years ago.
Within the first billion years of Earth's history, life appeared in the oceans and began to affect Earth's atmosphere and surface, leading to the proliferation of anaerobic and, later, aerobic organisms.
Some geological evidence indicates that life may have arisen as early as 4.1 billion years ago.
Since then, the combination of Earth's distance from the Sun, physical properties, and geological history have allowed life to evolve and thrive.
In the history of life on Earth, biodiversity has gone through long periods of expansion, occasionally punctuated by mass extinctions.
Over 99% of all species that ever lived on Earth are extinct.
Almost 8 billion humans live on Earth and depend on its biosphere and natural resources for their survival.
Humans increasingly impact Earth's surface, hydrology, atmospheric processes, and other life.